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Line 22f1fa19c3j Snell’s Law Calcite Crystals Velocity Refractive Index 5g WOW SETI

October 15, 2012

Line 22f1fa19c3j Snell’s Law Calcite Crystals Velocity Refractive Index 5g WOW SETI

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5g force ufo engine acceleration plasma formulas

part 284c3j of 100 videos there are more videos after this one i’ll post all then update the #.

Math Equation Wow Seti 1977 radio signal alien

Wow SETI 1977 radio signal alien

11/111/1/1/14=0.0071

Google 0.0071

Google 11 111 1 1 14
Snell’s law from calcite crystal data

Snell’s law from calcite crystal data


Quote WIKI:

In optics the refractive index (or index of refraction) n of a substance (optical medium) is a number that describes how light, or any other radiation, propagates through that medium.

Its most elementary occurrence (and historically the first one) is in Snell’s law of refraction, n1sinθ1= n2sinθ2, where θ1 and θ2 are the angles of incidence of a ray crossing the interface between two media with refractive indices n1 and n2. Brewster’s angle, the critical angle for total internal reflection, and thereflectivity of a surface also depend on the refractive index, as described by the Fresnel equations.[1]

More fundamentally, n is defined as the factor by which the wavelength and the velocity of the radiation are reduced with respect to their vacuum values: The speed of light in a medium is v = c/n, where c is the speed in vacuum. Similarly, for a given vacuum wavelength λ0, the wavelength in the medium isλ=λ0/n.

This implies that vacuum has a refractive index of 1. Historically other reference media (e.g., air at a standardized pressure and temperature) have been common.
Refractive index of materials varies with the wavelength. This is called dispersion; it causes the splitting of white light in prisms and rainbows, and chromatic aberration in lenses.

In opaquemedia, the refractive index is a complex number: while the real part describes refraction, the imaginary part accounts for absorption.

The concept of refractive index is widely used within the full electromagnetic spectrum, from x-rays to radio waves. It can also be used with wave phenomena other than light (e.g., sound).

In this case the speed of sound is used instead of that of light and a reference medium other than vacuum must be chosen.[2]

Material n
Gases at 0 °C and 1 atm
Air 1.000293
Helium 1.000036
Hydrogen 1.000132
Carbon dioxide 1.00045
Liquids at 20 °C
Water 1.333
Ethanol 1.36
Benzene 1.501
Solids
Ice 1.309
Fused silica 1.46
PMMA 1.49
Crown glass (typical) 1.52
Flint glass (typical) 1.62
Diamond 2.42
Selected refractive indices at λ=589 nm. For references, see the extended List of refractive indices.

30 July 2012 1104 pm edt

My thoughts:

Key words helium + hydrogen + carbon dioxide + liquids + water+ ethanol+ benzene + solids + ice+ fused silica + glass+ diamond (all found in previous WOW data videos)

Refractive index below 1
A widespread misconception is that since, according to the theory of relativity, nothing can travel faster than the speed of light in vacuum, the refractive index cannot be lower than 1.

This is erroneous since the refractive index measures the phase velocity of light, which does not carry energy or information, the two things limited in propagation speed.

The phase velocity is the speed at which the crests of the wave move and can be faster than the speed of light in vacuum, and thereby give a refractive index below 1.

This can occur close to resonance frequencies, for absorbing media, in plasmas, and for x-rays. In the x-ray regime the refractive indices are lower than but very close to 1 (exceptions close to some resonance frequencies).[4] 

As an example, water has a refractive index of 1−2.6×10−7 at a photon energy of 30 keV (0.04 nm wavelength).[4]

[edit]Negative refractive index
Main article: Negative index metamaterials

Recent research has also demonstrated the existence of the negative refractive index, which can occur if permittivity and permeability have simultaneous negative values.

This can be achieved with periodically constructed metamaterials. The resulting negative refraction (i.e., a reversal of Snell’s law) offers the possibility of the superlens and other exotic phenomena.

At the micro scale, an electromagnetic wave’s phase speed is slowed in a material because the electric field creates a disturbance in the charges of each atom (primarily the electrons) proportional to the electric susceptibility of the medium.

(Similarly, the magnetic field creates a disturbance proportional to the magnetic susceptibility.) As the electromagnetic fields oscillate in the wave, the charges in the material will be “shaken” back and forth at the same frequency.[5] 

The charges thus radiate their own electromagnetic wave that is at the same frequency, but usually with a phase delay, as the charges may move out of phase with the force driving them (see sinusoidally driven harmonic oscillator).

The light wave traveling in the medium is the macroscopic superposition (sum) of all such contributions in the material: The original wave plus the waves radiated by all the moving charges.

This wave is typically a wave with the same frequency but shorter wavelength than the original, leading to a slowing of the wave’s phase speed. Most of the radiation from oscillating material charges will modify the incoming wave, changing its velocity.

However, some net energy will be radiated in other directions or even at other frequencies (see scattering).

Depending on the relative phase of the original driving wave and the waves radiated by the charge motion, there are several possibilities:

• If the electrons emit a light wave which is 90° out of phase with the light wave shaking them, it will cause the total light wave to travel more slowly. This is the normal refraction of transparent materials like glass or water, and corresponds to a refractive index which is real and greater than 1.

• If the electrons emit a light wave which is 270° out of phase with the light wave shaking them, it will cause the total light wave to travel more quickly. This is called “anomalous refraction”, and is observed close to absorption lines, with X-rays, and in some microwave systems.

It corresponds to a refractive index less than 1. (Even though the phase velocity of light is greater than the speed of light in vacuum c, the signal velocity is not, as discussed above). If the response is sufficiently strong and out-of-phase, the result is negative refractive index discussed below.

• If the electrons emit a light wave which is 180° out of phase with the light wave shaking them, it will destructively interfere with the original light to reduce the total light intensity. This is light absorption in opaque materials and corresponds to an imaginary refractive index.

• If the electrons emit a light wave which is in phase with the light wave shaking them, it will amplify the light wave. This is rare, but occurs in lasers due to stimulated emission.

It corresponds to an imaginary index of refraction, with the opposite sign as absorption. For most materials at visible-light frequencies, the phase is somewhere between 90° and 180°, corresponding to a combination of both refraction and absorption.

Because of dispersion, it is usually important to specify the vacuum wavelength at which a refractive index is measured.

Typically, this is done at various well-defined spectral emission lines; for example, nD is the refractive index at the Fraunhofer “D” line, the centre of the yellow sodium double emission at 589.29 nm wavelength.

The variation of refractive index with wavelength for various glasses.

My Thoughts:

Key word thought here is the obsidian glass mirrors for the space elevator will take these refractive light calculations into consideration when figuring out where you want the neutrino substance beam to hit the mirrors and reflect off one another causing the space ship momentum as it crawls upwards towards outer space from the earth’s platform which is a type of magnet that when turned on will repel the bottom of your ship up from the ground using Newton’s law of atoms..

(AIRL)

30 July 2012 11 07 pm edt

Google

magnetic force repels alloys in next video

Key word FLINT… They used Obsidian for flint weapons and tools – the Maya artifacts found in Mexico….

Fluorite crown key words.. A fluorite type of powder is mentioned in the listing of alloys for the UFO design space ships exterior in line 22f1fa19 a to z(if they go that high)

Formula idea from graph

Fluorite + barium + obsidian flint + lanthanum

Search notes data for lanthanum GOOGLE to see what it is..

Google
Lanthanum in next videos

Relation between the refractive index and the density of silicate and borosilicate glasses.[

Google
Borosilicate glasses in another video

refractive index n wavelength um barium crown flurotie dense flint SF10 lanthanum La SF9


refractive index n wavelength um barium crown flurotie dense flint SF10 lanthanum La SF9

Relation between the refractive index and the density of silicate and borosilicate glasses.[

Relation between the refractive index and the density of silicate and borosilicate glasses.[

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